5.3. Useful tips
At the known skill and attentiveness many malfunctions of the engine and its systems can be determined by color of the smoke which is coming out an exhaust pipe quite precisely. Blue smoke demonstrates hit of oil in combustion chambers, and constant smoking — a sign of strong wear of details of tsilindroporshnevy group. Emergence of smoke at throttlings, after long scrolling by a starter, after long work idling or right after braking by the engine indicates, as a rule, wear of oil scraper caps of valves. Black smoke — a sign of too rich mix because of violations of work of a control system of the engine. Gray smoke with moisture impurity (especially after an engine overheat) means that cooling liquid got to the combustion chamber through the damaged laying of a head of the block of cylinders. At strong damage of this laying liquid sometimes gets also to the oil pallet, oil level sharply increases, and oil turns into a muddy whitish emulsion. White smoke, especially at not heated-up engine or in cold weather, – the normal phenomenon.
It is quite often possible to see the car standing in the middle of a city stopper with an open cowl which is letting out puffs of vapor. Overheat. Better, of course, not to allow it, glancing at the index of temperature more often. But nobody is insured from the fact that the thermostat can unexpectedly fail or antifreeze will just begin to flow. If you missed the overheat moment, do not panic and do not aggravate a situation. The overheat as its possible consequences is not so terrible. Never at once you suppress the engine — it will receive heatstroke and, perhaps, остыв, in general will refuse to be started. Having stopped, let's it work on single turns, in this case in system liquid circulation will remain. Include a heater on the maximum power and open a cowl. If there is an opportunity, water a radiator with cold water. Only having achieved decrease in temperature, stop the engine. But never at once open a stopper of a broad tank: on the superheated engine the geyser from under an open stopper is provided. You do not hurry, let's everything cool down — so you keep health of the car and your own health.
Practically all instructions to the car contain the recommendation at launch of the engine surely to squeeze out coupling. This recommendation is justified only in case of start-up in a hard frost not to spend energy of the rechargeable battery for a provorachivaniye of shaft and gear wheels of the transmission in the thickened oil. In other cases it is just the recommendation in order that the car did not start if on forgetfulness transfer is included. Such reception is harmful to the engine as at the squeezed-out coupling the considerable effort is transmitted through it on the persistent bearing of a bent shaft, and at start-up (especially cold) lubricant to it long does not arrive. The bearing quickly wears out, the bent shaft receives an axial side play, and start-off from the place begins to be followed by strong vibration. Not to damage the engine, take in a habit to check position of the lever of gear shifting before start-up and to launch the engine at the tightened parking brake, without squeezing out coupling without emergency.